Sunday, July 5, 2020

Ship Speeds Revisited

I recently looked up work I'd done years ago about the speeds of sea-going ships. Much to my annoyance and embarrassment, I found stuff that didn't work (in my opinion). Part of the problem is an old game trope that small ships are faster than bigger ones. That's not necessarily true. Smaller vessels are nimbler than larger ones and don't lose as much speed when tacking. On the other hand, ships with longer hulls possess greater potential for higher sailing speeds due to the way water flows along their sides: this is referred to as hull speed.

Temptation was to redo the chart entirely, but then an additional issue grafted itself on the whole, in that stats listed in my venerable old D&D Rules Cyclopedia don't really address sailing conditions. The game's intent, however, is to streamline mechanics as much as possible.

Nonetheless, as the endless tinkerer of things that don't need tinkering,
I tinkered.

I really didn't want to make an even bigger and more complicated chart. Instead, I came up with an Excel document that does all the number crunching to find out travel times, given that sailing conditions vary along the way. First, you select the ship type from the dropdown menu, and enter its length, beam, and draft into the next three cells on the right (see below).

Then you select up to 7 sailing conditions prevailing during the ship's journey from the array of dropdown menus shown below.
And there you have it: the average distance travelled on a map in miles per day, including variables that should affect the time it takes a ship to go from point A to point B. If more variety is needed, especially on a long journey, break up the voyage into separate periods of a few days each, and run numbers accordingly, adding up distances covered. This makes it easy to plot on a map perhaps ahead of a game where that ship will be at the end of each period (whereupon you might roll for random encounters).

Calculations are based on ship designs and hull speeds, and then calibrated to approximate historical sailing performances for the selected types of ships. As a DM, you can always adjust results as desired. This approach made it possible to break BECMI's single "sailing ships" category into three (Middle Ages cogs, late-medieval caravels, and later galleons). Cogs weren't ideal to cross oceans, while caravels were. Galleons were better able to cope with larger freight loads as well as oceanic sailing conditions.

The results given here are only intended as ballpark ideas They don't address magic or rowing. Sailing speeds for galleys and longships assume that some rowing might take place on occasion, but not more than this. When rowing alone (without the aid of sails), especially for galleys and oared galleons, assume 2-3 knots travelling speed. If you're unsure what the sizes of ships should be, a list of existing stats are also provided, along with a way to convert some numbers into metric. You can alter ship stats to see what the effects are. 

In-game encounter speeds quoted in Feet/round aren't realistic when compared with Miles/day. In-game MV rates are based directly on figures given in BECMI's Rules Cyclopedia, pg. 71. Number crunching had to reflect this to make sure adjusted MV rates for ships remained to scale with monsters' MV rates. Use your best judgement if figures get out of hand with the fastest sailing ships travelling at their top speeds.

An entry at the bottom of the spreadsheet helps compare MV rates for monsters and ships facing the same travel conditions (as may be relevant to the monster). Select from the dropdown menu whether the monster flies or swims. Enter its normal MV rate per round into the next space. Some monsters may need rest, so the number of hours travelled without interruption can be specified (see sand-colored cells in the illustration above). A chart suggesting travel hours per day for various monster types is also included. 

Click here to download the Excel document. Do download it since it won't work online; once the download is complete, open the file and (if that option comes up) enable editing at the top of the screen before using. The file is protected to avoid accidental deletions, but not passworded. The spreadsheet has already gone through one round of updates, so there may some minor differences between the illos above and the present document.

Friday, July 3, 2020

CAL1 Conversion Booklets

After nearly a month since I ordered the print proofs, they finally got delivered on July 2nd. They both look good. Numbered "CAL1a" and CAL1b," these books provide all the game stats from earlier titles for use with Labyrinth Lord and the OSRIC system respectively. The stats come from CAL1 "In Stranger Skies," PG1 "A Players' Guide to Meryath," and CA1 "Dreams of Aerie," which constitute Calidar's Series 1. They go a bit further since they actually include game stats that weren't available in the original gazetteer, so that's a big plus.

CAL1a and CAL1b came out *after* CAL2a and CAL2b which cover the three books in Series 2: CAL2 "On Wings of Darkness," PG2 "A Players' Guide to Caldwen," and CA2 "How to Train your Wizard." The reason for this is that PG1 did not yet exist at the time Series 2 was completed. PG1 was a retrofitted into Calidar's title line up, so I could organize them into Series (one gazetteer, one players' guide, and one adventure each). Once PG1 was born, CAL1a and CAL1b could finally come through.

This being said, product bundles available from DTRPG are being split accordingly, resulting in separate bundles for Series 1 and Series 2, which should be more manageable. Calidar's page on DTRPG has been reorganized to help sort out its growing list of titles. Click here for more about the existing series and what comes next.

The only hiccup in all this is that CAL1a and CAL1b each have an extra blank sheet in the back, for whatever reason. This wasn't intended. Given the situation with Covid-19 and the production delays resulting from it, I'm not going to withhold these two conversion books to fix the irksome issue at this time. So there! You have an extra sheet for notes, front and back!

Previous Kickstarter Backers: These conversion booklets were not included in the kickstarters for CAL1 or CAL2. If you were a backer in either of them, you'll need to obtain these two titles separately through DTRPG. 

Wednesday, July 1, 2020

D&D: The Horror Below

            The Teekal were native fellfolk who turned into jellyfish-like wraiths. Eons earlier, these stone-age nomads dwelled along Grand Valley of Khargandal’s southern shores. They dabbled with dark magic Ghülean raiders left behind for them to unearth. While the Teekal learned much in the necromantic arts, their newfound knowledge slowly transformed them into their present form: translucent and devoid of bones, fundamentally evil, undead, and craving the vitality of the living. Their arid homeland and the scorching light of the tropics drove them to seek the cool dimness of the deep, claiming the Teekal Seaway as their new realm. Save for parietal art hinting at the fellfolk’s sinister fate, little remains of their past existence on land. They are now irretrievably beholden to alien gods of Ghüle whose emissary they await. 

Skull Jellyfish by Manzanedo ©2020 Manzanedo
            Those intruding upon the seaway’s depths will probably encounter the Teekal’s marauders first. These are soulless constructs indistinguishable from large jellyfish. They occasionally foray into nearby seas, in search of prey near the shores of the Taslan Peninsula and the Island of Mareas. They usually attack small boats at night. Their purpose is to fetch what their makers covet the most: the souls and memories of the living. With their long tentacles, they ensnare their quarry and paralyze them. While kept alive and fully conscious by means only necromancers can fathom, their heads are cut off and their bodies discarded. All flesh other than eyes and brain matter is digested, after which the skulls and their contents are sucked into the marauders’ translucent innards and taken back to their makers.
            The Teekal upper bodies appear humanoid, while their lower halves looks more like bell-shaped cnidarians, with whorls of writhing tentacles where legs ought to be. With one such tentacle, one may pierce through a captured head and burrow into its brain in order to examine its owner’s past life. The process may last many days of sheer pain and horror for the victim, as the inquisitor sifts through items of interest and dwells with unholy relish upon emotional moments defining one’s entire life. All memories are meticulously observed, organized, and mentally marked for future use.

            Should captives offer little of interest, their flesh is sucked out and their souls devoured. Marauders regurgitate the bones and return to their previous duties. The others remain in a great hall made from hollowed out skulls, in alcoves where marauders and their captives are kept alive. By then, most victims have gone utterly mad from terror and despair, but such isn’t the Teekal’s concern. Their intent is to preserve all the information they gathered and turn it over to the Ghülean emissary, should it ever show up.

Marauder: Body AC 9/tentacles AC 6, HD 4**, 15 hp +1/tentacle, MV 30 (10’), AT 1d4+1 tentacles, D 1d4 each, Save F8, Int 0, ML 12, AL Chaotic, Size: M, XP 175.
            Abilities: Invisible from more than 30’ unless holding a skull. Paralysis as a ghoul. It fights with up to 5 of its fifteen 30’ long tentacles each round. Each hit requires a saving throw. The marauder wraps 1d4+4 tentacles around a paralyzed victim and floats away, fending off any pursuers with 1d4+1 of its remaining tentacles. Unless rescue takes place, the victim’s head is sucked in and extraneous flesh and hair melted off within the next 3 combat rounds +1 per experience level or HD of the victim. Death occurs if the disembodied head is taken from the marauder or if the creature is slain.
            Each tentacle requires at least 1 hp damage to cut off. They are immune to blunt and piercing/stabbing weapons, except for their magical bonuses, if any. The marauder’s bell-shaped body incurs half damage from slashing and blunt weapons except for their magical bonuses. It suffers normal damage from piercing/stabbing* weapons and magical attacks (* includes most swords if their owners clearly announce they are stabbing only). The creature uses tentacles with which it performs attacks to keep these foes away from its body. It receives a +2 bonus to hit foes ignoring tentacle attacks in order to reach its body. Tentacles can strike foes up to 30’ away. Inflicting 15 hp of damage to the body kills the creature. Marauders suffer an immediate Morale Check with a –2 penalty during each round of exposure to sunlight.

Jellyfish Mermaid by Castaguer
© 2015 - 2020 Castaguer93
Teekal*: Body AC 7/tentacles AC 4, HD 7*****, 32 hp +6/tentacle, MV 60 (20’), AT 4 tentacles or 1 spear or 1 spell, D tentacles and spear 1d6 each or by spell, Save F10, Int 10+2d4, ML 7, AL Chaotic, Size: S (fellfolk body size), XP 2,450.
            Abilities: Spellcasting as level 6 clerics—spell levels I-II x2 each, level III x1. Same general abilities as the marauder (they do not carry their foes' skulls). Teekals attack with all four of their 20’ long main tentacles; they require 6 hp damage to sever although they regenerate within a day. Their bodies can withstand up to 32 hp.
            They possess two arms as part of their torsos, although their hands and fingers are worm like. Some may wield a long spear whose head was coated with poison. The toxin is discharged with the first successful attack, liquefying the foe’s internal organs for 6d6 damage (save for half).
            Teekal speak a more sophisticated version of their old language, which other creatures in the region may understand (such as the Hanāi published earlier). They developed a written form, and can produce magical items.

Samaz Symbol
An Unexpected Guest: A sea god of Caldwen, Samaz is in fact a renegade who fled his alien masters in the Ghülean dimension. Powerful in his own right, he rose as a deity, hiding his true origins and watching for portents of his former overlords coming into Calidar’s universe. He’s found the Teekal and knows their purpose. Working surreptitiously from the shadows, he endeavors to manipulate their race, occasionally posing as a Ghülean emissary when the Teekal commune for their spells, hopefully to divert them from their evil quest. Some may already be under his sway. Ghülean gods have not detected his influence so far. Nonetheless, Samaz posted aquatic servants of his at narrow straits outside the Teekal Seeway and the Sea of Daor. Their objective is to slay marauders attempting to cross through, and launch an invasion should a Ghülean emissary show up. These forces often rely on beguiled sharks, swordfish, sea turtles, which are natural jellyfish predators.

Source: The map was cropped and altered from the revised climate chart by Thorfinn Tait, available as a poster map on DTRPG ©2019 Bruce A. Heard. Ghüle was introduced in Calidar’s CAL1 In Stranger Skies, page 55. Ghüle and Samaz were developed in CC1 Beyond the Skies, pages 102 and 245. The marauder and the Teekal as fantasy creatures constitute original content ©2020 Bruce A. Heard.

Wednesday, June 24, 2020

D&D: Death in the Night

Here’s a new creature that, as far as I know, has not yet been described as an RPG monster (correct me if I’m wrong). Definitely far-eastern in style, this one concerns both Calidar and the mysterious world of Lao-Kwei. Your PCs may come to fear and hate them. Game stats are written for D&D BECMI.

            Also known as dark ophidians, the Bào shé (豹蛇) possess the lower bodies of large snakes, human-like torsos and arms covered with short fur, and the heads of black panthers. A powerful sorcerer in faraway Lao-Kwei had bred these creatures to assassinate greedy imperial officials. For all their troubles, the empress cast a forever curse upon their kind that they may never again enjoy the light of day. After taking revenge upon their creator for their somber fates, they fled Lao-Kwei to escape imperial bounties posted there for their eradication.
            Their flight took them through a malfunctioning Kahuulkin portal. Their skyship materialized close to the ground on Calidar whereupon they crashed. Survivors found a cavern where they could hide during the day, and they eventually reproduced. The Bào shé are content to be left to their devices, but their nature compels them to hunt and slay those who defy them. They dwell in the Uplands of Aghea’s tropical savanna, 2,500 miles southeast of the Great Caldera.

            Over time, they established several independent clans jealously guarding their territories against other sapient races, usually marauding fellfolk, occasional humanoid remnants of a past Ghülean raid, or wayward Calderans. Exceedingly rare are foreigners trading with the Bào shé, let alone enjoying their nefarious services. They’ve come to dislike Felisean visitors the least. The existence of these ancient creatures has so far escaped the notice of present-day Lao-Kweian rulers whom the dark ophidians hate above all.
            Clan strongholds are indistinguishable from rocky bluffs in the veldt. Their true natures and their gates only appear under moonlight. Save for their sentinels, the Bào shé sleep during the day in dwellings carved out of the region’s natural sandstone. They come out at night to hunt and to patrol their vast territories stretching from the shores on the Sound of Az to the Sea of Gormon.

Bào shé: AC 4 (unarmored), HD 4***, 18 hp, MV 90 (30’), AT 1 bite/2 claws or 1 weapon, D bite 1d8/claws 1d4 each or by weapon, Save T5, Str 8+, Dex 13+, Con 8+, Int 8+, Wis 8+, Cha –2 penalty vs. other races, ML 9, AL Varies (usually Chaotic or Neutral*), Size: M (5½-6’ tall, 12’ long tail,) XP 225.
            Abilities: As a thief level 5 including backstab, although hide in shadows success odds are 66% (+1 per HD above 4); dimension door between shadows (see description below); spellcasting elders with 10+ HD are known to have existed on Lao-Kwei and are thought to have been exterminated. (*) In games that also consider the good vs. evil ethos, any alignment but Good is acceptable depending on the clan’s philosophy.

            The erstwhile enchantment bestowed upon the ancestral ones still runs deep in today’s Bào shé. It enables them to move through shadows nearly at will. This stealthy movement extends from one shadowy area to another within direct line of sight up to 150’. This ability can be used repeatedly, once per combat round, as long as the Bào shé succeeds a Con Check; if one fails, the ability can no longer be used until after proper rest is obtained. Shadowy areas are defined as those spots in which a thief may attempt to hide. Each move is considered a full action, although a hide in shadows roll is allowed upon arrival.
            Dark ophidians also know the ancient ritual of spectral blades. A Bào shé can only ever own one such weapon at any single time. With a successful attack, the blade disintegrates and its wielder steals the victim’s soul (no save). The stricken foe’s body is still alive, but in a catatonic state until it starves or falls prey to some other peril. The stolen soul remains inside its captor’s body who can then can access its memories (but not its skills). If either a Bào shé or its victims are killed, stolen souls fade into the netherworld (or return to their bodies, if still alive). A catatonic victim can be kept alive indefinitely with a daily healing spell.
            The ancient enchantment is such that if a captor holds nine souls at any single time, it vanishes from Calidar and reappears inside the abandoned abode of the Bào shé’s original creator on Lao-Kwei. Others have already made it to this ancestral birthplace. They gather their forces there to strike down the now-deceased monarch’s present dynasty and its heirs following a legendary prediction that "whensoever the ancient empress's blood be extinct, shall the forever curse be forfeit." It is the reason why dark ophidians do not slay victims of spectral blades; rather than abandoning survivors to the outrages of wildlife, the Bào shé occasionally leave their victims’ bodies near a village so they may be kept alive.
            Spectral blades are +2 magical weapons. Dark ophidians are known to craft other enchanted items through ancient rituals, such as various potions, magical rings, smoke bombs, paralyzing poisons, and powerful narcotics. They use equipment normally allowed for thieves such as swords, daggers, throwing stars, short bows, blowguns, leather armor, (etc.) as well as certain specialty items like war claws, flying claws, steel fans, nunchakus, chain whips, dragon beard hooks, and rope darts.
            As the result of the empress’s forever curse, direct sunlight (whether natural or magical) prevents the Bào shé’s shadow movement, inflicts 1d4 hp of damage per hour of exposure, and instantly disintegrates unsheathed spectral blades (no save). Dark ophidians suffering exposure also incur a –2 penalty to their hit rolls, to their saving throws, and to their initiative rolls.

Source: The map was cropped and altered from the revised climate chart by Thorfinn Tait, available as a poster map on DTRPG ©2019 Bruce A. Heard. The Lao-Kwei setting was introduced in Calidar’s CAL1 In Stranger Skies, page 54. The Bào shé as fantasy creatures and their realm is original content ©2020 Bruce A. Heard.

Sunday, June 21, 2020

D&D: How Big is That Gold Coin?

After an earlier article about economics (see D&D: How Much for That Sword?) I looked into the actual values of metals and coins—a huge topic to be sure. There are plenty of articles on the subject, including this one which I thought was the most complete (click here: Gold & Silver Coinage in Fantasy/Medieval RPGs, by Charles D. Hail ©2010). I’m sure you’ll find more. Given the plethora of well-written material, I didn’t feel compelled to reinvent the wheel.

Coins of Caldwen
            On the other hand, along the lines of obscure and largely useless knowledge, there is a remaining point that hasn’t been looked into, as far as I know. If we're cool with the game’s premise, a D&D BECMI coin weighs 1/10th of a pound. It doesn’t say what kind of coin though, therefore one must assume that All coins weigh the same, since coins are also the standard measure of encumbrance (cn). I bet you can already see where I’m going with this.

Coins of Meryath
            If the coins all weigh the same, their physical sizes must differ because metals have different densities (you knew that, right?): gold is heavier than silver, and silver outweighs copper, etc. Out of curiosity, I wanted to find out approximately how big a bag of 1,000 coins should be, depending on the coins. I think I got the math right, but please do correct me if I goofed. Thank you.

Coins of Alfdaín
Assumptions: The contents of a bag form an approximate sphere. About 20% of the space inside a bag is empty because old coins are somewhat rough edged, some may bulge, or they lie inside the bag at different angles. The coin volumes come from calculators you can find on Google. Bag sizes express the contents’ approximate diameter. So, at 9” across, a bag is assumed to be full and taller than it is wide, possibly 9x15 overall.

Coin Sizes (all weighing 1/10th pound)
Coin Type
1 Coin
1,000 Coins
Bag Capacity
Bag Size
5,074 mm³
37.9 mm
4.5 mm
6,088 cm³
23 cm
1.49 inch
0.18 inch
9 inches
4,321 mm³
37.1 mm
4 mm
5,185 cm³
21 cm
1.46 inch
0.16 inch
8½ inches
2,352 mm³
31.6 mm
3 mm
2,823 cm³
18 cm
1.24 inch
0.12 inch
7 inches
2,112 mm³
29.9 mm
3 mm
2,535 cm³
17 cm
1.18 inch
0.12 inch
62/3 inches

Coins of Caldwen
            So, all things considered, that copper coin is pretty large compared with a US quarter (24 mm across or just under an inch) or its thickness (2mm, or 0.08 of an inch). At 4.5 mm thickness, it’s a chunk, but despair not: plenty of coins in the real world were thicker than this. Take for example Russia’s 1771 copper coin (the “Sestroretsk” rouble; see below) measuring 78mm diameter and a whopping 35mm thickness. That’s not a coin, it’s a paperweight! You can kill someone with that.

Coins of Alfdaín
            The funny thing is, a 6.66” bag of platinum coins technically has the same “encumbrance” as a 9” bag of copper coins, since they weigh the same—according to D&D game mechanics at least. Thought you might want to know about this obscure and largely useless fact.

Thursday, June 18, 2020

D&D: How Much for that Sword?

So, you thought your character did OK with that 10 gp “normal” sword, eh? Hello, you got ripped off! 

A question came up recently about why PCs using straight by-the-book D&D BECMI game mechanics should bother using a battle axe, which requires both hands to wield, rather than a sword since they both inflict the same amount of damage. The answer was that battle axe’s useful weight is concentrated at the outer end of its shaft, which demands both hands to wield effectively. Compared to this, the sword’s weight is balanced closer to its handle and is therefore much more practical to wield single-handedly, but it’s also more expensive to forge. Either because of their cost or whether swords are limited by law to nobility (depending on the DM’s game world), swords might simply not be available to level 1 characters. In most games I’ve played, nobody pays attention to such minutia. PCs start with a lot more money than they should, provided gold is an issue at all! But let’s look further into this, in terms of economics and effects on game play.

Economics: The toughest part is establishing how money might work, given the generally fuzzy data on wealth and manufacturing in real world Middle Ages. The first thing to establish is a medieval “minimum wage” for workers in a way that can be easily translated into a D&D game. The concept is that minimum wage reflects the basic cost of food needed to survive (not including the costs of all other things like clothing, a place to live, and some entertainment, let alone savings). The chart below demonstrates the daily basic cost of food, assuming a loaf of bread costs 3 coppers (based on the cost of bread in 1300’s England—3 pence). Whether 3 English pence are really worth 3 D&D coppers remains to be proven, but I’ll establish this value as a baseline for the game, however arbitrary, provided everything else is priced accordingly, such as an adventurer’s equipment.

Cost of “Survival”
Servings per Loaf of Bread
Entire Loaf (1½ pound)
1,440 Calories
Average male worker requires 2,500 calories per day
loaves of bread per day
"Established" cost for
1 loaf of bread =
copper pieces
Minimum "survival" income =
copper pieces per day

Manufacturing a Sword: The next step is to get a better understanding of what it takes of make “a sword.” In a game like BECMI, such details as workmanship and how they affect gameplay are entirely brushed aside for the sake of simplicity. Nonetheless, let’s not lose sight of that crucial issue.
            A cheap, somewhat rudimentary sword, the sort a cash-strapped level 1 PC ought to look for, requires about a week’s work involving a blacksmith and two snot-nosed helpers, neither much more than apprentices in this profession. The chart below hashes out some numbers.

Sunday, June 14, 2020

D&D: Eyes in the Mist

Here is someone not to be monkeyed with, offered here with D&D BECMI game stats. The inspiration is directly grounded in the Mystic character class. Feel free to transplant/ape into a game world other than Calidar, using correct abilities for a fighting monk, as appropriate to your chosen game mechanics. Definitely a chimp off the old block.

Old Ape by Yang Qi ©2014-2020 Yang Qi
Hanāi: AC 3 (unarmored), HD 3****, 15 hp, MV 170’ (60’)/150’ (50’) in trees, AT 1, D 1d6+1 barehanded or by weapon, Save My4, Str 8+, Dex 13+, Con 8+, Int 8+, Wis 13+, Cha –1 penalty vs. other races, ML 9, AL Varies, Size: M (5½-6 ft. tall,) XP 95.
            Abilities: As a level 4 mystic (see RC pp. 29-31), including improved AC, MV, AT, Dmg (can hit foe requiring +1 magic), fighter combat options, acrobatics, thief skills, and special class powers (awareness and heal self). Racial abilities include shape-changing and clairvoyance. Shape-Changing: x1 daily; human-like only; cannot imitate a specific individual’s facial traits but can easily pass off as someone of another race with approximately the same size (human, elf, half-elf, half-orc if available in the chosen game world). The Hanāi can return to its native form at any time, forcibly upon death or if subject to a dispel magic. Clairvoyance: x1 daily; similar to a clairvoyance spell.
            The Hanāi incurs the same restrictions as standard mystics (as regards armor and protective magical devices). It uses its feet (with opposable thumbs) and its prehensile tail to help move quickly through the forest canopy.

            Many centuries ago, the Hanāi possessed a large realm that had emerged during a period of weakness in the Dread Lands. Alas, a Ghülean epidemic nearly wiped them out. Legends tell of some who fled as far as the great mountains of southern Omfall, growing thick white fur to survive. Others wandered deep below ground or to the Kalataazi Desert and were never heard of again. Over time, scattered groups returned to the ruins of their abandoned realm in the Taslan Peninsula, careful not to anger the spirits of nature which had reasserted their dominion upon this land. Elders learned the rituals to appease spirits of nature in order to gather what people needed to live.
            Their villages today consist of bamboo-built abodes dangling from very large tree branches, interconnected with rope bridges. Invasive vegetation has overtaken ancient stone-built stupas and prangs—tall, spire-shaped, heavily adorned shrines. Those still standing have been cleared of debris and wild growth on the inside and below ground save for the largest roots. The forest canopy hides much of those ruins from above.
            Fragments of paved roads, once-royal stairways, bridges, and statues blend in with the rain forest. It is said that the Hanāi possess a bond with primates. Elders and adventurers of their kind know how to communicate with apes, monkeys, and other simian creatures who often serve as spies and watch over Hanāi tombs.

Source: The map was cropped and altered from the revised climate chart by Thorfinn Tait, available as a poster map on DTRPG. Ghüle is an alien world; source material is located in CC1 "Beyond the Skies," pp. 244-245. As a fantasy creature and its realm, the Hanāi is original content developed for the author's blog ©2020 Bruce A. Heard.